Corn and Poultry Feeding

صفحه اصلیarticlesCorn and Poultry Feeding
12
August
Corn and Poultry Feeding
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    دنا سامانه
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Maize is considered as a standard in comparison with other grains of cereal and other food ingredients. In many poultry rations, most of the metabolizable energy is supplied by corn. Worldwide maize production is around 600 million tonnes, with 240 million tonnes produced in the United States. China with production of about 100 million tons and Brazil with a production of 40 million tons in the next ranks. The highest amount of maize used in animal feed is grade 2 corn American. By increasing the corn rating number, the density will decrease and there will be more broken beads and more foreign matter.

Grade 2 corn should not contain more than 5% broken seeds and more than 5% of foreign matter. Separated grains do not seem to reduce the metabolizable energy, but the presence of external materials will have such an effect. Broken grains are a good place to grow fungi. Corn is considered as a standard in comparison with other grains of cereal and other food ingredients. In many poultry rations, most of the metabolizable energy is supplied by corn. Worldwide maize production is around 600 million tonnes, with 240 million tonnes produced in the United States. China with production of about 100 million tons and Brazil with a production of 40 million tons in the next ranks. The highest amount of maize used in animal feed is grade 2 corn American. By increasing the corn rating number, the density will decrease and there will be more broken beads and more foreign matter. Grade 2 corn should not contain more than 5% broken seeds and more than 5% of foreign matter. Separated grains do not seem to reduce the metabolizable energy, but the presence of external materials will have such an effect. Broken grains are a good place to grow fungi.
The value of corn energy production depends on the starch in the endosperm segment, which is mainly amylopectin, and its bud, the highest amount of corn oil in it. Most corn donkeys contain 3 to 4 percent of the oil, but now the newer varieties of the market contain 6 to 8 percent of the oil, which are equally energy intensive. These new high-fat varieties contain 2 to 3 percent more protein and more acid addition. Prolumina is the main protein of corn, whose amino acid composition is not suitable for poultry. When preparing diets containing low protein, it is necessary to pay attention to the amino acid balance of their usability in corn, because in such conditions, the proline may be up to 50 to 60% Provides protein ration. The amount of yellow and orange corn pigments is relatively high and usually contains 5 parts per million xanthophyll and 0.5 ppm per million carotene. So it will be enough to feed body pigments and egg yolks, feeding birds that feed on corn. While corn is the number 2 standard seed for animal feed. In most cases, lower grade corn is available due to poor cultivation, collection and maintenance. In general, corn grain nutrient value is reduced by decreasing its grade or number.
For each pound, the weight loss of each bushel, in comparison with the standard weight of 56 pounds per bushel, is reduced by about 10 to 15 kilos per kilogram of energy from the maize. Although this weight loss of each bushel is not related to the amount of protein or more amino acids, there is evidence of a decrease in the amount of methionine to immature specimens. Another issue for better understanding of high and immature corn crops is that to reduce its moisture content to 15%, these seeds should be heated under more severe conditions or for longer periods of time. High or prolonged heat causes caramel or burning of its sugary matter, resulting in a change in its odor and color. It should be noted that under these conditions there is a potential for browning of carbohydrates and reducing lysine….
Moles and mycotoxins may be problematic due to their season and storage conditions. Aflatoxin contamination is very common in insect-damaged corn grown in hot and humid areas and can not be done with the high levels of this mycotoxin. It seems that the use of aluminum silicates reduces the effects of low levels of aflanthoxin in the diet. If the corn is even suspected of having aflatoxin, it must be screened before mixing. Pineapple is another mycotoxin that is infected in some cases by corn. Because this poison is combined with vitamin D3, it can cause skeletal problems and problems with egg shells. If I had been down, the level of contamination, administration of vitamin D3 in drinking water might be beneficial.
The growth of mildew is a serious problem when transporting corn. The growth of molds often occurs in seeds that have a moisture content of 16% and transported at an ambient temperature of more than 25 ° C. One solution is to add some organic acids when loading the corn. Although organic acids kill fungi and prevent their re-growth, they have no effect on existing mycotoxins.
Broken grains and foreign particles in corn reduce its economic value. But, according to Dale and colleagues in Georgia, the energy value of their corn grain is quite small. The energy of broken grains was only 200 kcal / kg of whole corn, while this value was 600 kcal / kg for an external generator. Therefore, grade 4 maize with 10% broken seeds and 5% of foreign matter than grade 2 maize with 5% of seeds and 3% of foreign matter will only be less than 25 kg per kilogram.
It would seem that if corn is consumed in flour, the grinding of the corn so that the corn size is as uniform as 0.7-0.9 mm, it has the advantage of the bird. The milling of these sizes is usually called “average crushing”. The digestibility of fine-grinding (flour) or very coarse maize in birds is probably lower. The use of corn in animal feed mills that produce pellet rations has problems. Diets containing more than 30% of corn can only be prepared in the form of a relatively solid pellet with the addition of bundle pellets


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